裕仁天皇與近代日本的形成 Hirohito and the making of modern Japan

作者 Herbert P. Bix/著 林添貴/譯

時報出版社

出版日期 2002-02-25

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文 / 陳宗巖


義大利的墨索里尼、德國的希特勒這兩個發動第二次世界大戰的要角,在大戰結束後的下場唯死一途,然而另一個與第二次世界大戰的極其相關的日本裕仁天皇,卻能過安然地度過餘生,既不是如東條英磯、木戶幸一為東京戰犯法庭的被告,也沒有為第二次世界大戰負任何責任,既沒遭受軟禁、也沒有被迫遜位,唯一遭受影響的只有決策權力遭剝奪。

裕仁天皇在他餘生之年,努力地靠文字寫作為其在第二次世界大戰的角色作辯護,宣稱他當時只是一個沒有實權的天皇,歷任內閣所做的決策,包括九一八事變、一二八事變、七七蘆溝橋事變、南京大屠殺、南太平洋戰爭、偷襲珍珠港,都只能被迫接受內閣決策,然而本書作者日本歷史學家賀柏特.畢克斯(Herbert Bix)引用許多二戰時期,環繞在裕仁天皇身邊重要人物的回憶錄、日記等文字書面資料指出,裕仁天皇完全知悉從日本侵華的過程,事實上,在當時日本天皇的體制下,內閣首相的任命完全由裕仁與宮廷中資深人物決定,等於是裕仁天皇的傀儡,例如戰犯法庭中的首席戰犯,也是發動偷襲珍珠港的當時日相東條英磯,即為日人天皇極為重視的人物,而東條首相的所作所為都是在裕仁明示暗示中進行,裕仁天皇甚至在南太平洋戰爭中的態度是極鷹派的。

這段不為人知的歷史,因為日本皇室並未完全公布二戰時所有的史料,因此作者用極有限的資料,做出相當合理的,甚至無可辯駁的推論,裕仁天皇不僅對二戰中所有日本的暴行知悉甚詳,而且握有最終主導權,戰犯審判中放過裕仁,並不合理也不合法。在為日軍侵華揭開序幕的九一八事變,雖然裕仁並未同意,但是在日本關東軍的軍國主義薰陶下,裕仁天皇默認了這次行動,隨後日本軍隊更肆無忌憚地制訂攻擊行動,裕仁天皇在默認的行動中,實際上是支持軍隊的,這也是為何東條英磯獲從陸軍中被拔擢為首相,並得到天皇的信任,書中記載,裕仁天皇在得知東條英磯在法庭中被判死刑時,天皇為其流淚。

裕仁天皇戰後在麥克阿瑟與與皇室親近的內廷派安排下,得以逃脫被起訴的命運,因為麥帥擔心天皇做為日本的象徵,一旦被處死,將造成日本社會莫大的衝擊,一向被視為神的天皇,竟然死在日本人民面前,加上麥帥深知,天皇當時對日本政治有相當的影響力,需要與其合作來重建日本,因此麥帥、裕仁天皇與內廷派遂合作將戰爭罪刑交由以東條英磯、木戶幸一為首,加上幾個陸軍將帥的戰犯承擔,挽救天皇的性命。戰後日本憲法在麥帥主導下,架空天皇實權,裕仁天皇不再被日本人視為神,而只是一個矮小的、其貌不揚的、聲音尖銳的普通人,書中指出裕仁天皇相當無法適應無權的生活,直到終老。

這本書應當可以讓那些歐美各國對裕仁不諒解的人吐一口怨氣,裕仁天皇應否為二戰負責?在日本教科書中對日本天皇的責任避重就輕,連對日本造成的浩劫僅描述成日本避免亞洲人遭受帝國主義的迫害,才跳出來解放亞洲人,殊不知,日本的所作所為早就是帝國主義的樣版了。雖然裕仁天皇、日本對二戰的責任,並未獲得完整的全貌,但隨著這本獲得美國普立茲獎的書出版,拆掉裕仁的假面具,相信若干年後,公正的歷史將還給在1931至1945年間的人們一個公道。



博客來導讀

文/王乾任,文字工作者

說起日本的裕仁天皇,應該有不少老一輩、受過日本教育的台籍台灣人,還留有有印象。金瓜石的昭和太子行宮(太子賓館),記錄著1926年當時仍是太子的昭和在台灣視察的足跡。1945年日本戰敗,裕仁天皇的「玉音放頌」,或許仍有不少老一輩的台灣人,記憶猶新。

這位曾經造訪台灣的昭和太子,後來登基為裕仁天皇,是當今明仁天皇的父親。如果說裕仁天皇是整個日本史上最有權力的天皇,應該一點也不為過。

日本皇室雖為萬世一系,但由於日本長期的戰國割據與幕府統治,天皇所擁有的實權並不多。大多數的時候像中國東周春秋時代的周王朝一樣,不過是個名義上的共主。然而日本國民信奉神道教,視天皇為神,導致天皇的倖存。

近代日本吸收了中國思想與西方科學的優點,經歷明治維新、大政奉還,創發出富國強兵的一代。而裕仁天皇正誕生於這樣一個歷史氛圍。

裕仁天皇身為點燃第二次世界大戰戰火的三位重要領導人之一,裕仁天皇卻得以安享天年,於1988年逝世,得以並重見日本的富強。裕仁天皇在一般世人與過往歷史研究中的形象,是個溫文無辜的虛位君主,對國家大事毫無興趣,也無力置喙。然而,事實果真如此嗎?

裕仁天皇到底是不是日本侵略東亞的罪魁禍首?對於建構大東亞共榮圈,裕仁的角色是什麼?外界認為裕仁天性斯文,性喜研究生物。然而不斷有人質疑他,為什麼縱容軍國主義者發動戰爭,侵略他國。對此,裕仁始終沈默。

為此,哈佛大學歷史和遠東語言學的博士,也是美國著名的日本學專家,目前是日本東京Hitotsubashi大學社會科學研究院的教授畢克斯發表了《裕仁天皇和現代日本的形成》(Hirohito and the Making of ModernJapan)。

許多裕仁的書信、日記以及檔案在1988年裕仁去世後,逐漸曝光。畢克斯就是根據這些資料研究撰寫了這本充滿爭議性的書。

本書旨在破除世人對裕仁的刻板印象與迷思。長久以來裕仁被視為毫無權威、和平主義的虛位君主,完全無法過問日本軍國大事。畢克斯在本書中花了很大的篇幅來處理裕仁與日本發起的二次大戰之間的關係。畢克斯認為裕仁是個智力能力平庸的君主,受過完整的日本皇室教育,深信自己是天賦神授的日本君王。上天賦予他的任務就是統治日本。

畢克斯根據新的史料發現,裕仁在名義上和實質上都是日本二次大戰中軍隊的最高統帥。當時的日本軍士都是以天皇的名義出征(其實筆者認為,從不少日本漫畫中也可以看出這樣的觀點),裕仁積極的投入這場戰爭的規劃和領導。熟知所有的戰略與軍事活動,無論是南京大屠殺還是偷襲珍珠港。裕仁願意參與並且有意介入整個軍事活動,更是裕仁讓原本可以提前結束的戰爭硬是拖了好幾個月。

另外,本書也破除了麥克阿瑟將軍和美軍在日本佔領期間的道德神話。美國參戰是為了結束法西斯主義,但美國卻沒有趁勢廢除日本軍國主義的根源-天皇制度,更沒有讓天皇下臺。天皇將投降轉化為給日本平民的和平禮物,天皇扮演起和平使者,開始抹殺其戰時的黑暗面,重新建構裕仁在世人面前的形象(這也是世人一直認識的形象)。然而,更令人震驚的是麥克阿瑟知道並且容許天皇的所作所為,並幫助裕仁建構這個謊言,為了是利用裕仁使美軍可以在日本順利建構軍事基地,確保日本在冷戰中的同盟角色。

畢克斯的研究,為我們揭開的「國王的新衣」。哈佛大學日本研究學院院長Andrew Gordon就認為,對20世紀歷史感興趣的人來說,這是一本非常重要且具有爭議性的書。

Amazon.com
To many, Emperor Hirohito of Japan is remembered as a helpless figurehead during Japan's wars with China and the U.S. According to the received wisdom, he knew nothing of the plan to bomb Pearl Harbor and had no power to stop atrocities like the Rape of Nanking. The emperor was the mild-mannered little man who traipsed with Mickey Mouse in Disneyland and who brought peace through surrender, certainly not "one of the most disingenuous persons ever to occupy the modern throne." Herbert Bix's charged political biography, however, argues that such accepted beliefs are myths and misrepresentations spun by both Japanese and Americans to protect the emperor from indictment. Since Hirohito's death in 1989, hundreds of documents, diaries, and scholarly studies have been published (and subsequently ignored) in Japan. Historian Bix used these sources to develop this shocking and nuanced portrait of a man far more shrewd, activist, and energetic than previously thought. Caught up in the fever of territorial expansion, Hirohito was the force that animated the war system, who, acting fully as a military leader and head of state, encouraged the belligerency of his people and pursued the war to its disastrous conclusion. To the very end, Hirohito refused to acknowledge any responsibility for his role in the death of millions as well as the brutalities inflicted by his forces in China, Korea, and the Philippines. In fact, he worked with none other than General MacArthur to select his fall guys and fix testimony at the Tokyo War Crimes Trials--the emperor trying to protect the throne at all cost, the U.S. acting to ensure control of the Japanese population and the military by retaining Hirohito as a figurehead.

Not surprisingly, this hefty work of scholarship is making waves, as Americans and Japanese reconsider their roles in WWII and its aftermath. By placing Hirohito back in the center of the picture and puncturing the myths that surround him, Bix has effectively asked the Japanese to come out of their half-century repression of the past and face their wartime responsibility. Without doing so, he implies, the monarchy will forever impede the development of democracy. For those interested in Japan's wartime past and its influence on the present, this is fascinating, if lengthy, reading. --Lesley Reed --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From Publishers Weekly
Bix penetrates decades of "public opacity" to offer a stunning portrait of the controversial Japanese emperor, "one of the most disingenuous persons ever to occupy the modern throne." Hirohito ascended to the Japanese throne in 1926 (at the age of 25) and ruled until his death in 1989. Bix closely examines his long, eventful reign, concentrating on the extent of the emperor's influence-which was greater than he admitted-over the political and military life of Japan during WWII. Bix's command of primary sources is apparent throughout the book, especially in the voluminous endnotes. From these sources, the author, a veteran scholar on modern Japanese history, draws a nuanced and balanced portrayal of an emperor who did not seek out war, but who demanded victories once war began and never took action to stop Japan's reckless descent into defeat. Bix makes Hirohito's later career intelligible by a careful exposition of the conflicting influences imposed on the emperor as a child: a passion for hard science coexisted with the myths of his own divine origin and destiny; he was taught benevolence along with belief in military supremacy. These influences unfolded as Hirohito was drawn into Japan's long conflict with China, its alliance with the fascist states of Europe, and its unwinnable war against the Allies. The dominant interest of the Showa ("radiant peace") Emperor, Bix convincingly explains, was to perpetuate the imperial system against more democratic opponents, no matter what the cost. Bix gives a meticulous account of his subject, delivers measured judgements about his accomplishments and failures, and reveals the subtlety of the emperor's character as a man who, while seemingly detached and remote, is in fact controlling events from behind the imperial screen. This is political biography at its most compelling. Agent, Susan Rabiner. (Sept.)
Copyright 2000 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

-- The Economist
""A historical bombshell. . . . Compelling. . . . The most controversial book yet on Japan's previous emperor."" --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Los Angeles Times
"Explosive. . . . Demolishes the stereotype of Japan's wartime emperor as a mousy and passive figurehead." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

-- The Washington Post Book World
""Herbert Bix's highly readable and massively researched biography is all but certain to shatter the old images. . . . Controversial and important."" --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

-- The Boston Globe
""Bix succeeds . . . in demonstrating that the emperor shirked moral responsibility. . . . Offers fresh and well-documented insights."" --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From Booklist
Most postwar histories have portrayed Emperor Hirohito in one of two ways: a shy, hands-off monarch who preferred marine biology to affairs of state or a pacifistic but weak ruler who was dragged by militarists into a war of conquest against his better judgment. Bix has written extensively on Japanese history and is currently a professor in the graduate school of social sciences at Tokyo's Hitotsubasbi University. In this provocative and disturbing work, he paints a far more complex portrait of Hirohito. Aided by newly available material from Japanese archives, Bix convincingly asserts that the emperor was deeply involved in most aspects of the Pacific war, from start to finish, and he voiced few objections to the most brutal outrages of his military. It is particularly disturbing to see how the cocoon of lies spun around Hirohito has been used by conservative and especially reactionary politicians in Japan to advance their nationalistic agenda. This book will undoubtedly cause a storm of controversy, especially in Japan. However, it is a vital contribution to an ongoing and critical debate. Jay Freeman
Copyright © American Library Association. All rights reserved --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

James Fallows, author of Looking at the Sun: The Rise of the
"This is the rare work of impeccable scholarship that will also be fascinating to the general reader. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

John W. Dower, author of Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II
"... a riveting portrait... In this excellent and incisive study, the emperor's new clothes are stunning to behold." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Lester C. Thurow, Lemelson Professor of Management and Economics, the Sloan School, M.I.T.
"For those who want to understand history and modern events ... this is a must read." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Noam Chomsky, Institute Professor, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, M.I.T.
"This remarkable study is indispensable for the understanding of Japan and its place in Asia in the past century." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Andrew Gordon, Director, Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, Harvard University
"This is an important and controversial book... reading for all those interested in the history of the twentieth century world." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Chalmers Johnson, author of Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire
"This is one of the most important books ever written on World War II in the Pacific. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

-- Los Angeles Times
""Explosive. . . . Demolishes the stereotype of Japan's wartime emperor as a mousy and passive figurehead."" --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

-- Foreign Affairs
""This book is a rare achievement: a work that turns established knowledge upside down. . . . Impressive."" --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

-- Newsweek International
""Myth-shattering. . . . [T]his superb biography should jog loose a few suppressed memories."" --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

-- San Diego Union Tribune
""Professor Bix has created both a fascinating biography and a brilliant encapsulation of Japan's most difficult years."" --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Book Description
Winner of the Pulitzer Prize

In this groundbreaking biography of the Japanese emperor Hirohito, Herbert P. Bix offers the first complete, unvarnished look at the enigmatic leader whose sixty-three-year reign ushered Japan into the modern world. Never before has the full life of this controversial figure been revealed with such clarity and vividness. Bix shows what it was like to be trained from birth for a lone position at the apex of the nation's political hierarchy and as a revered symbol of divine status. Influenced by an unusual combination of the Japanese imperial tradition and a modern scientific worldview, the young emperor gradually evolves into his preeminent role, aligning himself with the growing ultranationalist movement, perpetuating a cult of religious emperor worship, resisting attempts to curb his power, and all the while burnishing his image as a reluctant, passive monarch. Here we see Hirohito as he truly was: a man of strong will and real authority.

Supported by a vast array of previously untapped primary documents, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan is perhaps most illuminating in lifting the veil on the mythology surrounding the emperor's impact on the world stage. Focusing closely on Hirohito's interactions with his advisers and successive Japanese governments, Bix sheds new light on the causes of the China War in 1937 and the start of the Asia-Pacific War in 1941. And while conventional wisdom has had it that the nation's increasing foreign aggression was driven and maintained not by the emperor but by an elite group of Japanese militarists, the reality, as witnessed here, is quite different. Bix documents in detail the strong, decisive role Hirohito played in wartime operations, from the takeover of Manchuria in 1931 through the attack on Pearl Harbor and ultimately the fateful decision in 1945 to accede to an unconditional surrender. In fact, the emperor stubbornly prolonged the war effort and then used the horrifying bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, together with the Soviet entrance into the war, as his exit strategy from a no-win situation. From the moment of capitulation, we see how American and Japanese leaders moved to justify the retention of Hirohito as emperor by whitewashing his wartime role and reshaping the historical consciousness of the Japanese people. The key to this strategy was Hirohito's alliance with General MacArthur, who helped him maintain his stature and shed his militaristic image, while MacArthur used the emperor as a figurehead to assist him in converting Japan into a peaceful nation. Their partnership ensured that the emperor's image would loom large over the postwar years and later decades, as Japan began to make its way in the modern age and struggled -- as it still does -- to come to terms with its past.

Until the very end of a career that embodied the conflicting aims of Japan's development as a nation, Hirohito remained preoccupied with politics and with his place in history. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan provides the definitive account of his rich life and legacy. Meticulously researched and utterly engaging, this book is proof that the history of twentieth-century Japan cannot be understood apart from the life of its most remarkable and enduring leader.

About the Author
Herbert P. Bix grew up in Winthrop, Massachusetts, and earned his Ph.D. in history and Far Eastern languages from Harvard University. For the past thirty years he has written extensively on modern and contemporary Japanese history in leading journals in the United States and Japan. He has taught Japanese history at a number of American and Japanese universities, most recently at Harvard, and is currently a professor in the Graduate School of Social Sciences at Hitotsubashi University in Tokyo.



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